UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022 For Paper 1 & Paper 2

Looking for UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022? Here get the UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus For Paper 1 & Paper 2 and Download PDF
UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022: If you are an Environmental Sciences student and wish to make your career in this field, then the National Eligibility Test is the most worthwhile career option after pursuing PG.

To crack the Environmental Sciences NET exam, you must know the complete NTA UGC NET Syllabus 2022 for Environmental Sciences.

Here we have provided the latest UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022.

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022

National Testing Agency (NTA) releases the UGC NET syllabus along with the latest notification.

UGC NET syllabus for both paper-I and -II was revised by NTA in June 2019, no changes are likely to be made to this year's NET syllabus.

The subject code for UGC NET Environmental Sciences is 89. It comprises two online papers namely Paper-I & Paper-II with Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)s.

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus for Paper I 2022

UGC NET Syllabus for Environmental Sciences Paper I tests the reasoning ability, reading comprehension, divergent thinking, and general awareness of the candidate.

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Paper I syllabus will have 50 questions worth 100 marks. Paper I syllabus has 10 units, and precisely 5 questions will be asked from each unit.

Go through the exam pattern of the UGC NET Environmental Sciences Paper 1 syllabus mentioned below:

Topics Questions Marks
Part I: Teaching Aptitude 5 10
Part II: Research Aptitude 5 10
Part III: Reading Comprehension 5 10
Part IV: Communication 5 10
Part V: Reasoning (including Maths) 5 10
Part VI: Logical Reasoning 5 10
Part VII: Data Interpretation 5 10
Part VIII: Information & Communication Technology (ICT) 5 10
Part IX: People & Environment 5 10
Part X: Higher Education System: Governance, Polity & Administration 5 10
Total 50 100

[Check Latest UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus for Environmental Sciences ]

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus For Paper II 2022

Here you can check the latest UGC NET Syllabus For Environmental Sciences Paper-II 2022.

Unit-I: Fundamentals of Environmental Sciences

  • Definition, Principles and Scope of Environmental Science.
  • Structure and composition of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
  • Laws of thermodynamics, heat transfer processes, mass and energy transfer across various interfaces, material balance.
  • Meteorological parameters – pressure, temperature, precipitation, humidity, mixing ratio, saturation mixing ratio, radiation and wind velocity, adiabatic lapse rate, environmental lapse rate. Wind roses.
  • Interaction between Earth, Man and Environment. Biogeographic provinces of the world and agro-climatic zones of India. Concept of sustainable development.
  • Natural resources and their assessment. Remote Sensing and GIS: Principles of remote sensing and GIS. Digital image processing and ground-truthing. Application of remote sensing and GIS in land cover/land use planning and management (urban sprawling, vegetation study, forestry, natural resource), waste management and climate change.
  • Environmental education and awareness. Environmental ethics.

Unit-II: Environmental Chemistry

  • Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry: Classification of elements, Stoichiometry, Gibbs’ energy, chemical potential, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibria, the solubility of gases in water, the carbonate system, unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, radioisotopes.
  • Composition of air. Particles, ions and radicals in the atmosphere. Chemical speciation. Chemical processes in the formation of inorganic and organic particulate matter, thermochemical and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere, Oxygen and Ozone chemistry. Photochemical smog.
  • Hydrological cycle. Water as a universal solvent. Concept of DO, BOD and COD. Sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, filtration, pH and Redox potential (Eh).
  • Inorganic and organic components of soils. Biogeochemical cycles – nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus and sulphur.
  • Toxic chemicals: Pesticides and their classification and effects. Biochemical aspects of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr) and metalloids (As, Se). CO, O3, PAN, VOC and POP. Carcinogens in the air.
  • Principles of analytical methods: Titrimetry, Gravimetry, Bomb Calorimetry, Chromatography (Paper Chromatography, TLC, GC and HPLC), Flame photometry, Spectrophotometry (UV-VIS, AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS), Electrophoresis, XRF, XRD, NMR, FTIR, GC-MS, SEM, TEM.

Unit-III: Environmental Biology

  • Ecology is an interdisciplinary science. Origin of life and speciation. Human Ecology and Settlement.
  • Ecosystem Structure and functions: Structures – Biotic and Abiotic components. Functions – Energy flow in ecosystems, energy flow models, food chains and food webs. Biogeochemical cycles, Ecological succession. Species diversity, Concept of the ecotone, edge effects, ecological habitats and niche. Ecosystem stability and factors affecting stability. Ecosystem services.
  • Basis of Ecosystem classification. Types of Ecosystem: Desert (hot and cold), forest, rangeland, wetlands, lotic, lentic, estuarine (mangrove), Oceanic.
  • Biomes: Concept, classification and distribution. Characteristics of different biomes: Tundra, Taiga, Grassland, Deciduous forest biome, Highland Icy Alpine Biome, Chapparal, Savanna, Tropical Rain forest.
  • Population ecology: Characteristics of the population, the concept of carrying capacity, population growth and regulations. Population fluctuations, dispersion and metapopulation. Concept of ‘r’ and ‘k’ species. Keystone species.
  • Community ecology: Definition, community concept, types and interaction – predation, herbivory, parasitism and allelopathy. Biological invasions.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation: Definition, Types, the importance of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity. Concept and basis of identification of ‘Hotspots’; hotspots in India. Measures of biodiversity. Strategies for biodiversity conservation: in situ, ex-situ and in vitro conservation. National parks, Sanctuaries, Protected areas and Sacred groves in India. Concepts of the gene pool, biopiracy and bio-prospecting. Concept of restoration ecology. Extinct, Rare, Endangered and Threatened flora and fauna of India.
  • Concept of Industrial Ecology.
  • Toxicology and Microbiology: Absorption, distribution and excretion of toxic agents, acute and chronic toxicity, the concept of bioassay, threshold limit value, the margin of safety, therapeutic index, biotransformation. Major water-borne diseases and airborne microbes.
  • Environmental Biotechnology: Bioremediation – definition, types and role of plants and microbes for in situ and ex situ remediation. Bioindicators, Biofertilizers, Biofuels and Biosensors.

Unit-IV: Environmental Geosciences

  • Origin of earth. Primary geochemical differentiation and formation of core, mantle, crust, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Concept of minerals and rocks. Formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Controls on the formation of landforms – tectonic including plate tectonic and climatic. Concept of steady-state and equilibrium, Energy budget of the earth. Earth’s thermal environment and seasons. Coriolis force, pressure gradient force, frictional force, geostrophic wind field, gradient wind. Climates of India, western disturbances, Indian monsoon, droughts, El Nino, La Nina. Concept of residence time and rates of natural cycles. Geophysical fields.
  • Weathering including weathering reactions, erosion, transportation and deposition of sediments. Soil forming minerals and process of soil formation, Identification and characterization of clay minerals, Soil physical and chemical properties, soil types and climate control on soil formation, Cation exchange capacity and mineralogical controls.
  • Geochemical classification of elements, the abundance of elements in bulk earth, crust, hydrosphere and biosphere. Partitioning of elements during surficial geologic processes, Geochemical recycling of elements. Paleoclimate.
  • Distribution of water in the earth, hydrology and hydrogeology, major basins and groundwater provinces of India, Darcy’s law and its validity, groundwater fluctuations, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater tracers, land subsidence, effects of excessive use of groundwater, groundwater quality. Pollution of groundwater resources, Ghyben-Herzberg relation between fresh-saline water.
  • Natural resource exploration and exploitation and related environmental concerns. Historical perspective and conservation of non-renewable resources.
  • Natural Hazards: Catastrophic geological hazards – floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanism, avalanche, tsunami and cloud bursts. Prediction of hazards and mitigation of their impacts.

Unit-V: Energy and Environment

  • Sun as a source of energy; solar radiation and its spectral characteristics. Fossil fuels: classification, composition, Physico-chemical characteristics and energy content of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Shale oil, Coal bed Methane, Gas hydrates. Gross-calorific value and net-calorific value.
  • Principles of generation of hydropower, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, wind power, geothermal energy, solar energy (solar collectors, photovoltaic modules, solar ponds).
  • Nuclear energy – fission and fusion, Nuclear fuels, Nuclear reactor – principles and types.
  • Bioenergy: methods to produce energy from biomass.
  • Environmental implications of energy use; energy use pattern in India and the world, emissions of CO2 in developed and developing countries including India, radiative forcing and global warming. Impacts of large scale exploitation of solar, wind, hydro and nuclear energy sources.

Unit-VI: Environmental Pollution and Control

  • Air Pollution:
    • Sources and types of Pollutants – Natural and anthropogenic sources, primary and secondary pollutants. Criteria air pollutants. Sampling and monitoring of air pollutants (gaseous and particulates); period, frequency and duration of sampling. Principles and instruments for measurements of (i) ambient air pollutants concentration and (ii) stack emissions. Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Impact of air pollutants on human health, plants and materials. Acid rain. Dispersion of air pollutants. Mixing height/depth, lapse rates, Gaussian plume model, line source model and area source model. Control devices for particulate matter: Principle and working of: settling chamber, centrifugal collectors, wet collectors, fabric filters and electrostatic precipitator. Control of gaseous pollutants through adsorption, absorption, condensation and combustion including catalytic combustion. Indoor air pollution, Vehicular emissions and Urban air quality.
  • Noise Pollution:
    • Sources, weighting networks, measurement of noise indices (Leq, L10, L90, L50, LDN, TNI). Noise dose and Noise Pollution standards. Noise control and abatement measures: Active and Passive methods. Vibrations and their measurements. Impact of noise and vibrations on human health.
  • Water Pollution:
    • Types and sources of water pollution. Impact on humans, plants and animals. Measurement of water quality parameters: sampling and analysis for pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, hardness, chlorides, salinity, DO, BOD, COD, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals and organic contaminants. Microbiological analysis – MPN. Indian standards for drinking water (IS:10500, 2012). Drinking water treatment: Coagulation and flocculation, Sedimentation and Filtration, Disinfection and Softening. Wastewater Treatment: Primary, Secondary and Advanced treatment methods. Common effluent treatment plant.
  • Soil Pollution:
    • Physicochemical and biological properties of soil (texture, structure, inorganic and organic components). Analysis of soil quality. Soil Pollution control. Industrial effluents and their interactions with soil components. Soil micro-organisms and their functions – degradation of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers.
  • Thermal, Marine Pollution and Radioactive:
    • Sources of Thermal Pollution, Heat Islands, causes and consequences. Sources and impact of Marine Pollution. Methods of Abatement of Marine Pollution. Coastal management. Radioactive pollution – sources, biological effects of ionizing radiations, radiation exposure and radiation standards, radiation protection

Unit-VII: Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

  • Solid Waste – types and sources. Solid waste characteristics, generation rates, solid waste components, proximate and ultimate analyses of solid wastes.
  • Solid waste collection and transportation: container systems – hauled and stationary, the layout of collection routes, transfer stations and transportation.
  • Solid waste processing and recovery – Recycling, recovery of materials for recycling and direct manufacture of solid waste products. Electrical energy generation from solid waste (Fuel pellets, Refuse derived fuels), composting and vermicomposting, biomethanation of solid waste. Disposal of solid wastes – sanitary landfilling and its management, incineration of solid waste.
  • Hazardous waste – Types, characteristics and health impacts. Hazardous waste management: Treatment Methods – neutralization, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, solidification, stabilization, incineration and final disposal.
  • e-waste: classification, methods of handling and disposal.
  • Fly ash: sources, composition and utilisation.
  • Plastic waste: sources, consequences and management.

Unit-VIII: Environmental Assessment, Management and Legislation

  • Aims and objectives of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP). EIA Guidelines. Impact Assessment Methodologies. Procedure for reviewing EIA of developmental projects. Life-cycle analysis, cost-benefit analysis. Guidelines for Environmental Audit. Environmental Planning as a part of EIA and Environmental Audit. Environmental Management System Standards (ISO14000 series). EIA Notification, 2006 and amendments from time to time. Eco-labelling schemes.
  • Risk Assessment – Hazard Identification, Hazard accounting, Scenarios of exposure, Risk characterization and Risk management.
  • Overview of Environmental Laws in India: Constitutional provisions in India (Article 48A and 51A). Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 amendments 1991, Forest Conservation Act, 1980, Indian Forest Act, Revised 1982, Biological Diversity Act, 2002, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 amended 1988 and Rules 1975, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 amended 1987 and Rules 1982, Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules 1986, Motor Vehicle Act, 1988, The Hazardous and Other Waste (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, The Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, The Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016, The e-waste (Management) Rules 2016, The Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016, The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical (Amendment) Rules, 2000, The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2010 with Amendments, The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and Rules 1991, Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000, Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ) 1991 amended from time to time.
  • National Forest Policy, 1988, National Water Policy, 2002, National Environmental Policy, 2006.
  • Environmental Conventions and Agreements: Stockholm Conference on Human Environment 1972, Montreal Protocol, 1987, Conference of Parties (COPs), Basel Convention (1989, 1992), Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (1971), Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro, 1992, Agenda-21, Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Convention on Biodiversity (1992), UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, 1997, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Earth Summit at Johannesburg, 2002, RIO+20, UN Summit on Millennium Development Goals, 2000, Copenhagen Summit, 2009. IPCC, UNEP, IGBP.

Unit-IX: Statistical Approaches and Modelling in Environmental Sciences

  • Attributes and Variables: types of variables, scales of measurement, measurement of Central tendency and Dispersion, Standard error, Moments – the measure of Skewness and Kurtosis, Basic concept of probability theory, Sampling theory, Distributions – Normal, log-normal, Binomial, Poisson, t, 2 and F-distribution. Correlation, Regression, tests of hypothesis (t-test, 2-test ANOVA: one-way and two-way); significance and confidence limits.
  • Approaches to the development of environmental models; linear, simple and multiple regression models, validation and forecasting. Models of population growth and interactions: Lotka-Volterra model, Leslie’s matrix model.

Unit-X: Contemporary Environmental Issues

  • Global Environmental Issues – Biodiversity loss, Climate change, Ozone layer depletion. Sea level rise. International efforts for environmental protection.
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (Eight National missions – National Solar Mission, National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, National Water Mission, National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, National Mission for a ‘Green India’, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change).
  • Current Environmental Issues in India: Environmental issues related to water resource projects – Narmada dam, Tehri dam, Almatti dam, Cauvery and Mahanadi, Hydro-power projects in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal and North-Eastern States.
  • Water conservation-development of watersheds, Rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge.
  • National river conservation plan – Namami Gange and Yamuna Action Plan.
  • Eutrophication and restoration of lakes. Conservation of wetlands, Ramsar sites in India.
  • Soil erosion, reclamation of degraded land, desertification and its control.
  • Climate change – adaptability, energy security, food security and sustainability.
  • Forest Conservation – Chipko movement, Appiko movement, Silent Valley movement and Gandhamardhan movement. People Biodiversity register.
  • Wildlife conservation projects: Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Crocodile Conservation, GOI-UNDP Sea Turtle project, Indo-Rhino vision.
  • Carbon sequestration and carbon credits.
  • Waste Management – Swachha Bharat Abhiyan.
  • Sustainable Habitat: Green Building, GRIHA Rating Norms.
  • Vehicular emission norms in India.
  • Epidemiological Issues: Fluorosis, Arsenocosis, Goitre, Dengue.
  • Environmental Disasters: Minamata Disaster, Love Canal Disaster, Bhopal Gas Disaster, 1984, Chernobyl Disaster, 1986, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, 2011.

[Download UGC NET Environmental Sciences Paper 2 Syllabus New PDF ##download##]

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Old Syllabus

The UGC NET examination old syllabus was applicable till December 2018. You can download it in pdf format from the following link.

Kindly note that this syllabus is considered outdated and is now not applicable for the upcoming UGC NET examination in Environmental Sciences.

[Download UGC NET Environmental Sciences Paper 2 Syllabus Old PDF ##download##]

Other Important Study Materials for UGC NET Environmental Sciences

You should have the following study materials to boost your exam preparation for the NTA UGC NET Environmental Sciences Exam.

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Exam Pattern 2022

UGC NET Environmental Sciences Exam has two papers, i.e., Paper 1 and Paper 2.

Here you can know the facts about UGC NET Environmental Sciences Exam 2022

Particulars UGC NET Paper-I Overview
UGC NET Paper-II Overview
Exam mode Online Online
Exam duration 3 hours (180 minutes)
Type of paper Common for all candidates Subject-specific questions
Total questions 50 100
Type of questions MCQs; 4 options with only 1 correct option
MCQs; 4 options with only 1 correct option
Total marks 100 200
Marking scheme 2 marks for the correct answer
0 for an incorrect answer
2 marks for the correct answer
0 for an incorrect answer
Language of paper English and Hindi English

Important Points About UGC NET Environmental Sciences Exam Pattern:

  • The Test will have two papers. Both the papers will consist of objective-type, multiple-choice questions. 
  • There will be no break between papers.
  • you will get 2 marks for each correct response, 
  •  There is no negative marking for an incorrect response.
  • No marks will be given for questions Unanswered.

Benefits Of Latest UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022

For any preparation to be successful, knowing the syllabus and exam pattern is essential.

You can definitely score more with the proper use of the UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus.

Some notable benefits from the new UGC NET Environmental Sciences 2022 Syllabus are as below:

  • UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus describes the topics and concepts to be covered while preparing for the examinations. 
  • UGC NET Syllabus for Environmental Sciences also mentions the weightage allotted to different units and chapters, knowing which you may form a strategy for preparing for chapters with high or low weightage.
  • Question paper format is also explained in a syllabus that lets students know about the questions asked and various sections employed in the exam papers. It also gives an idea about the marks distribution in the paper.
  • Having a clear understanding of your syllabus and the weightage to various sections will definitely help you decide how much time you should dedicate to each section.
  • Generally, the exam papers are designed as per the syllabus. So, prepare according to the topics mentioned in the syllabus obviously helps to crack the exam with good scores.

We have covered the detailed guide on NTA UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022. Feel free to ask us any questions in the comment section below.



NTA UGC NET Adult Education Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Anthropology Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Arab Culture and Islamic Studies Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Archaeology Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Commerce Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Comparative Literature Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Comparative Study of Religions Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Computer Science and Applications Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Criminology Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Defence and Strategic Studies Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Economics Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Education Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Electronic Science Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET English Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Environmental Sciences Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Folk Literature Solved Question Papers,8,NTA UGC NET Forensic Science Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Geography Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET History Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Home Science Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Human Rights and Duties Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Indian Culture Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET International and Area Studies Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Labour Welfare Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Law Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Library and Information Science Solved Question Papers,40,NTA UGC NET Linguistics Solved Question Papers,9,NTA UGC NET Management Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Mass Communication and Journalism Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Museology and Conservation Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Music Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Paper 1 Solved Question Papers,30,NTA UGC NET Performing Arts Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Philosophy Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Physical Education Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Political Science Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Population Studies Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Psychology Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Public Administration Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Social Medicine and Community Health Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Social Work Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Sociology Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Tourism Administration and Management Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Tribal and Regional Languages Solved Question Papers,8,NTA UGC NET Visual Art Solved Question Papers,10,NTA UGC NET Women Studies Solved Question Papers,10,UGC NET Answer Key,82,UGC NET Books,82,UGC NET Exam,99,UGC NET Question Papers With Solutions,83,UGC NET Subjects,1,UGC NET Syllabus,82,Year Wise Solved NTA UGC NET Question Papers,82,
My Exam Notification - Free UGC NET Guide: UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022 For Paper 1 & Paper 2
UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022 For Paper 1 & Paper 2
Looking for UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus 2022? Here get the UGC NET Environmental Sciences Syllabus For Paper 1 & Paper 2 and Download PDF
My Exam Notification - Free UGC NET Guide
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content